Showing posts with label Watt. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Watt. Show all posts

Wednesday, October 15, 2014

Hydro And Nuclear

English: Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plants 1 & 2 ...
English: Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plants 1 & 2 (BWRs with 860 MWe each) in Eurajoki, Finland. Suomi: Olkiluodon vanhat ydinvoimalaitokset eli voimalaitokset 1 ja 2, Eurajoki. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
Nepal might generate 40,000 MW from the flowing rivers. But the Terai could generate that amount just from nuclear power plants. It is possible. So I don't think hydro should be allowed to distort the federalism debate in Nepal.

Monday, January 07, 2013

नेपालमा आर्थिंक क्रांति र न्यु यर्कका नेपाली

म 2005 मा न्यु यर्क आएको आफ्नो टेक्नोलॉजी कम्पनी स्थापना गर्न, तर फुल टाइम नेपालको लोकतान्त्रिक आन्दोलनमा लाग्न पुगेछु। नेपालको अप्रिल क्रांति, मधेसी क्रांति सकिएपछि, ओबामाले दुई दुई पटक चुनाव जितिसकेपछि, अमेरिकाको आर्थिक मंदी अलि साम्सुम भैसकेपछि अब त आफ्नो काममा लागौं कि भन्ने अवस्थामा नेपाल फेरी front and center भएर आइदिएको छ। नेपालमा संबिधान र संघीयता आइसकेपछि त्यस पछिको 20-30 बर्ष त आर्थिक क्रांति नै हो। आर्थिंक क्रांति भनेको टन्न पैसा कमाउने भनेको हो।

टेक्नोलोजी कम्पनी भनेको software हो तर software मा Google र Facebook जस्तो cutting edge काम गर्न सक्ने मेरो पृष्ठभूमि छैन। Software पछिका next big things मा clean energy, biotech , nanotech पर्छन। Clean Energy मा Hydroelectricity पर्छ। Hydro मा ब्राजिल पछि नेपाल कै स्थान छ। 2005 मा नेपालका लागि सोंच्दा पैसा खर्च हुन्थ्यो। आगामी 20-30 बर्ष नेपालका लागि सोंच्दा पैसा कमाउने बाटा हरु देखा परेका छन। नेपालका hydro प्रोजेक्ट हरु का लागि न्यु यर्क मा funding खोज्ने काम फलदायी हुने मैले सोंचेको छु।

Software छोड़ने भनेको होइन। Hydro पनि गर्ने भनेको हो। न्यु यर्क का विभिन्न नेपालीका website मेरो टीम ले बनाई दिया छ। मोबाइल app को राम्रो स्कोप छ। जैक्सन हाइट्स मा एउटा पान दोकान खोल्न लाग्ने पूँजी भन्दा कम पूँजी मा एउटा app बन्न सक्छ, र idea राम्रो हो र त्यसले hit खान्छ भने त्यसले पटेल Brothers लाई  डाउन पार्न सक्छ।

दुनियाको office भारत, दुनियाको फैक्ट्री चीन। इम्पोर्ट बिज़नस को पनि राम्रो स्कोप छ।

न्यु यर्क जस्तो opportunity भएको ठाऊँमा आफ्नो व्यक्तिगत आर्थिक क्रांति गर्न नसक्नेले नेपालमा आर्थिक क्रान्तिको नारा दिनु खोक्रो हुन्छ। त्यही भएर साथी हो पैसा कमाऊं।
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Saturday, August 25, 2012

Hydro Politics

Three Gorges Dam
Hydropower In Nepal
Hydropower In Nepal: Videos
Hydropower In Nepal: Images

You ain’t seen nothing yet
despite us being in the middle of the monsoon, NEA has just raised power rationing to seven hours daily. ... this winter there will be electricity for only four hours a day..... nothing is going to prepare us as individuals, families and as a country to the looming dark winter ahead .... Politicians were distracted by fighting, by infighting, by greed and corruption, but by and large, they were just breathtakingly incompetent. .... only 8MW of power was added to the grid in the last fiscal year, while the increase in demand was 80MW. This fiscal year is .. demand has grown by another 90MW, but there has been zero augmentation in supply. .... It is a great leap backward to the dark ages. .... In five years, demand is set to rise to 1500MW which means we will need an installed capacity of 4500MW to cover for the winter deficit. The projects expected to be completed in the next few years, including Upper Tamakosi, Upper Trisuli 3A and 3B, and Chamelia, will only add 586MW to the grid. ...... Foreign investors are being harassed either by the government, by local extortionists, or by the hydro mafia. Projects that were on the verge of starting construction have had their licenses revoked, local opposition has stalled three big projects with Indian investment, like Arun III, Budi Gandaki and Upper Karnali. The Brazilian investor, Engevix, is on the verge of pulling out of the 400MW Lower Arun. ..... Nepal needs to be more investment-friendly, tariffs need to be revised to make it worthwhile and the bureaucratic hurdles need to be smoothened. .... the real reason: incompetence, corruption, mismanagement and political interference. ..... Among the recommendations: •Political consensus on future strategy •Generate enough power to meet domestic demand for value-added industry and only then export • Immediately commission a reservoir project in each development zone • Unbundle transmission and distribution, address inefficiencies, corruption, pilferage in the NEA .... acting now so there will be no power cuts by 2018.
Nepal to produce hydroelectricity under sub-regional framework
Nepal will come forward to jointly produce and share hydroelectricity with its neighbours including Bangladesh
Nepal seeks more deals in hydropower sector
Nepal has extended a warm welcome to more Chinese hydropower companies to invest in projects worth $400 billion, following the approval of the $1.8 billion contract to China Three Gorges Corp for West Seti Hydropower. ..... “In terms of capital, nobody can compete with China,” said constituent assembly member and entrepreneur Binod Chaudhary here on the sidelines of the Boao Forum for Asia in Hainan province yesterday. “The biggest opportunity for Chinese companies in Nepal is to build projects in the same manner as the West Seti project.” ..... The government has just approved China Three Gorges Corp to undertake the $1.8 billion West Seti River hydropower project. The 750-megawatt (MW) plant has opened a ‘complete new chapter’ for Chinese investment in its neighbouring country ..... The Export-Import Bank of China will provide loans of $1.8 billion for a period of 10 years for the project, in which Three Gorges Corp will hold 75 per cent equity and Nepal Electricity Authority the remainder. ..... The construction of the hydroelectric dam is expected to start in 2015 and could be in operation as soon as 2020 .... some of the electricity generated by the West Seti plant could be supplied to China, as Nepal was unlikely to absorb all the power ..... Rivals of Three Gorges Corp, including Sinohydro Corp, are also building hydropower plants in Nepal, but private companies from Europe and India are the major investors in the sector. ..... Chaudhary allayed concerns that local residents could oppose the West Seti project because of environmental damage. Local people showed a very positive attitude, believing it would improve the area’s infrastructure and living standards, he said.
Key Elements of Improving Nepalese Hydropower Sector
Nepal is experiencing a huge energy (electricity) deficit. .... To solve these problems in the sector of hydro electricity and ensure adequate electricity supply in the future, national, international and private investment is needed, regardless of its form – be it unilateral, bilateral or multilateral investment. ..... By endorsing foreign investment into the sector of hydro electricity generation, Nepal would not only tackle its prime problem of water supply in the country (because of unsatisfactory distribution); it would also enable Nepal exporting water and energy to its neighbouring countries and thus acquiring resources so needed to alleviate its poverty. Exporting hydro energy could become one of the most important “Cash Drivers” for Nepal
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Friday, August 24, 2012

Hydropower In Nepal

Hydropower In Nepal: Videos
Hydropower In Nepal: Images

Hydropower in Nepal
Nepal has approximately 40,000 MW of economically feasible hydropower potential. However, the present situation is that Nepal has developed only approximately 600 MW of hydropower. ..... only about 40% of Nepal's population has access to electricity. Most of the power plants in Nepal are run-of-river type with energy available in excess of the in-country demand during the monsoon season and deficit during the dry season. ...... in the entire scenario of energy use of the country, the electricity is a tiny fraction, only 1% energy need is fulfilled by electricity. The bulk of the energy need is dominated by fuel wood (68%), agricultural waste (15%), animal dung (8%) and imported fossil fuel (8%). ...... the development of hydropower will help to achieve the millennium development goals with protecting environment, increasing literacy, improving health of children and women with better energy. ...... The electricity demand in Nepal is increasing by about 7-9% per year. ..... The power system is dominated by the hydropower which contributes about 90 % of the system and the balance is met by multi fuel plant. The hydropower development in Nepal began with the development of 500 kW Pharping power plant in 1911. The most recent significant power plant commissioned is the 144-MW Kali Gandaki “A” Hydroelectric Plant. ...... Until 1990, hydropower development was under the domain of government utility, Nepal Electricity Authority (NEA) only. However, with the enactment of new Hydropower Development Policy 1992, the sector was opened to the private sector also. There are number of projects already built by the private developers. Private power producers contribute 148 MW of power to the ‘Integrated Nepal Power System'
Hydropower in Nepal
World's 20% of electricity is by Hydropower. In contrary, 96% of electricity in Nepal is by Hydropower ...... Hydropower electricity is environment friendly - no pollution in air or in land, and, is also the most efficient method of all
Himalayan Hydropower
Nepal is one of the poorest countries in the world—a quarter of its population lives on less than US$1 per day, and unemployment rates are over 40 percent. With a population of over 29 million, Nepal is facing an upward trajectory in energy demand, resulting in energy shortage situations where less than half of the nation’s electricity needs are met. In recent years, during the coldest winter months, Nepalis have experienced power cuts for over 16 hours per day. ..... The combination of poverty and political instability has stunted the growth of an otherwise vibrant and culturally rich society, endowed with the breathtaking Himalayas, rich biodiversity, and most importantly, water. ........ current annual hydropower output to be at 634 MW, grossly below potential and insufficient to meet domestic energy demand. ......... Nepal’s steps for future development lie in harnessing the full potential of hydropower ...... there exists a tremendous market potential in India and China. ...... better ameliorate the social and economic costs of such projects by employing local populations in the construction of projects, implementing skills-based technical training, improving local schools, and operating with deference to local authorities and laws. ...... With its proximity to the world’s two most populous nations, Nepal should channel its own liquid gold to support domestic electricity needs and export to energy-hungry markets
Nepal approves hydropower project
The government of Nepal has given the green light for China Three Gorges Corp.'s $1.6 billion hydropower project on the West Seti River..... The West Seti approval came after China Three Gorges, China' largest hydropower development company and operator of China's massive Three Gorges Dam, on March 16 threatened to pull out of the 750 megawatt project if it didn't move forward...... Nepal's state power utility would have a 25 percent share in the project and China Three Gorges the rest..... Construction is to start in 2015, with electricity generation to begin starting in 2019...... Nepal says the estimated $1.6 billion cost for West Seti will come from China Three Gorges as well as from a loan from China's Exim Bank. It says the 3.33 billion units of energy the project is expected to supply is intended for domestic consumption..... The project license for West Seti was previously awarded in 1994 to Australia's Snowy Mountains Engineering Corp. but was scrapped last July. Under the terms of that license, Nepal was to receive 10 percent of the project's 750 megawatts of electricity along with a nominal royalty from SMEC's profit from the project, with the remaining 90 percent of the power exported to India
Nepal turns back on hydropower
The Himalayas provide Nepal with fast flowing rivers, ideal for hydropower ..... To deal with crippling power cuts that last two thirds of a day, the government has declared a national power crisis, and announced a plan to install a series of generators of up to 200 megawatts (MW). .... They will run on diesel ..... there were talks about importing the generation plants from China, which reportedly had many of them spare after hosting last year's Olympics. ..... we will have to get thermal plants to immediately address the load shedding, it's a compulsion ..... Having been hit hard by the power cuts, the private manufacturing sector is also stressing the need for businesses to install their own electricity generators. ..... Most of these will again be equipment run on diesel. .... With more than 6,000 rivers and rivulets gushing down the Himalayan foothills, snaking through the country's rugged topography, there is the potential to generate tens of thousands of megawatts. .... Major large hydroelectric project partnerships with India, agreed years ago, have never moved off the drawing board
Politics and economics of hydropower in Nepal
beginning in October to November and continuing until the monsoon arrives in June or July. By February the cuts are expected to intensify to 16 hours a day. ..... With a government eager to build large-scale schemes pitted against an active civil society keener on small-scale hydropower, progress has stalled. And a middle way is needed fast. ...... a thorough study to establish the country’s true hydro potential was badly needed. ..... the ministry’s goal to produce 10,000 megawatts in 10 years ....... a nation only just emerging from the shadow of a decade-long civil war and desperate for development and growth. Government policy therefore remains large-scale and export-oriented. ..... The early 1990s marked the World Bank’s infamous withdrawal from the 404-megawatt Arun III project located on the eponymous river in north-eastern Nepal. On the basis of a petition filed by members of the local community and activists, Nepal’s Supreme Court ruled that the World Bank and Nepalese government must provide information on the project to the public. There were several criticisms of the scheme, including the fear of a rise in the electricity tariff (the project’s estimated cost was US$5,400 [36,800 yuan] per kilowatt), the ecological impact of the plant on the rich biodiversity of the Arun Valley and the claim the project was too big for Nepal (the cost was equal to the country’s entire annual budget). ....... Then came the Mahakali Treaty between Nepal and India in the mid-1990s, which envisioned the 315-metre high, multipurpose Pancheshwar dam, with water-storage capacity of 12.3 billion cubic metres and a 6,480 megawatt power house. Nepal’s Supreme Court determined that the treaty required ratification by a two third majority of the parliament. After intense debate, the agreement was finally ratified on November 27, 1996, but deep disagreement split the main opposition party (the United Marxist Leninists). The treaty stipulated that the detailed project report (DPR) would be completed in six months, but more than 10 years after signing it, India and Nepal have failed to make significant progress. ......... India is drawn by water and irrigation, not electricity. “India imports power from Bhutan, its friendly neighbour; it has signed nuclear deal with the US; and has its own hydro capacity in north-east and other parts,” he says. “So, it would be incorrect to say that it is eyeing Nepal’s hydroelectricity.” Electrical engineer Bimal Gurung disagrees: “India, which is increasingly drawn into the climate-change debate, can’t use thermal plant,” he argues. “It would be cheaper to import from its geographically close neighbour Nepal than from remote Bhutan.” ...... the Bhutanese model, in which India builds the project and then imports the power, has drawn criticism from experts in Nepal. In an article published in Himal Southasian magazine in August, leading water-resource expert Dipak Gyawali termed the model, a “neo-colonial path to power”. ...... The 750-megawatt West Seti project has been through many ups and downs, culminating in the sudden withdrawal of its Chinese investor early last year. Initially conceived as a 77-megawatt run-of-the-river project, it was later optimised to a 195-metre, concrete face rockfill dam capable of producing 750 megawatts of electricity. But, if it goes ahead, it is feared the dam will displace the people of four districts. The reservoir will cover 25 square kilometres and have a volume of around 1.5 billion cubic metres. ...... there is money in Nepal but lack of security is hindering investment. ..... “Not all big dams are bad and not all small dams are good.” The solution may be promoting micro hydropower as well as investing in environmentally friendly and sustainable medium-sized and large-scale projects
Status Of Hydroelectricity In Nepal: Potential And Challenges
Hydro-electricity (hydel) is the most widely used form of renewable electricity in the world. .... Once a hydel project is completely constructed, it will produce no more direct waste and has very less output level of green house gas CO2 than other fossil fuel powered plants. Moreover unlike other renewable energy resources like solar and wind (intermittent energy sources), where sunlight and blowing wind is not available everytime, hydel can ensure 24/7/365 supply of energy as water always keeps on flowing. Therefore hydel is one of the best renewable energy sources. ...... Only three power plants generating over 10 GW are in operation in world currently, namely: Three Gorges Dam(22.5GW), Itaipu Dam(14GW), and Guri Dam(10.2GW)
Economy of Nepal
Progress has been made in exploiting Nepal's natural resources, tourism and hydroelectricity. With eight of the world's 10 highest mountain peaks, including Mount Everest at 8,848 m. In the early 1990s, one large public sector project and a number of private projects were planned; some have been completed. The most significant private sector financed hydroelectric projects currently in operation are the Khimti Khola (60 MW) and the Bhote Koshi Project (36 MW).The project is still undergoing and has dependancy on India to take the further steps .......... The environmental impact of Nepal's hydroelectric projects has been limited by the fact that most are "run-of-the-river" with only one storage project undertaken to date. The largest under active consideration is the private sector West Seti (750 MW) storage project which is dedicated to exports. Negotiations with India for a power purchase agreement have been underway for several years, but agreement on pricing and capital financing remains a problem. Currently demand for electricity is increasing at 8%-10% a year whereas Nepal's option to have agreement with India will make this fulfillment against demand
Presentation On Hydro Power Development In Nepal June 2011
The average annual precipitation is approximately 1700 mm (80% of which occurs during the monsoon season - June to September). The total annual average run-off from the nation's 600 perennial rivers flowing from high mountains is over 200 billion cu.m....... Nepal's storage potential is estimated at 88 billion cu.m ..... cooperation between the neighboring countries and going for Intra-national Grid is essential for the best use of the hydro resource for mutual benefit...... In coming decades, Nepal’s power sector is expected to boom tremendously. Hydropower Projects currently under construction, planned, and proposed should boost the country’s total generating capacity up to 22,000 MW, half of the country’s economical hydropower potential
FDI in Nepal’s Hydropower Sector: A Focus on the Product
To develop the hydropower sector, we need foreign direct investment (FDI) because Nepal’s own resources both in the public and private sector cannot meet the financial investment needed to do that. A large investment is required from foreign development agencies and private sector entrepreneurs. ...... Currently, Nepal is harnessing less than 1 percent of its potential hydropower energy and the country depends on bio-fuels, mainly wood, to meet its energy needs. It also spends a lot funds on petroleum products. This has had serious consequences for Nepal’s environment. ...... What is needed for Nepal to emerge itself as one of the richest countries in the region is to develop water and human resources simultaneously. ..... A macro-economic study has concluded that in order to eradicate absolute poverty in households, the country needs to register 8% economic growth rate. This will help to bring the level of percentage of population below poverty line to 10% and by 2027 there will be no household in absolute poverty. No other sector of economy other than hydropower is in a position to help achieve this goal. ...... the installed capacity of hydropower by ownership currently amounts to 561.231 MW (389.150 MW in public major projects, 69.34 % of total capacity, 133.113 MW in private power projects; 23.72% of total capacity, 200.00 MW in public-private joint ventures, 3.56 % of total capacity; and 189.68 MW in small hydropower projects, 3.38% of total capacity) ...... FDI may be in the form of loan, contract, or as a grant aid. ..... More than 500 hydropower projects of different capacity have been identified in the country. ..... The most recent private hydropower development projects are almost all proposed by Indian or Indian-Nepali joint investors. ..... The Indian companies are perhaps best suited to operate in Nepal due to their proximity, cultural and economic understanding of the Nepali situation, and relatively low cost of their professional and other costs. ..... the recent budget has enlisted an even more ambitious plan of generating 10, 000 MW in ten years. ..... Since 1992, the private sector development of the hydropower was seen as the best approach to utilize Nepal's most important economic potential while utilizing the private sector efficiency. ..... Although the previous few private power development were carried out by the US, Australian, Chinese and a few other companies, the most successful ventures have been the ones organized by the Nepali investors. ...... The policy should aid hydropower development, not personal development of politicians and bureaucrats. Too often, government officials and investors make surveys, licenses and taxes a means to their personal development. ...... We have bitter examples like Mukti Shree Pvt. Ltd. (an unknown company) which was awarded the license for the largest multipurpose project of Nepal (Karnali Chisapani 10,800 MW) and West Seti Storage Project, and also Power Purchase Agreements (PPA) for Upper Modi, Daram Khola, Langtangkhola and Madi. Their licenses have not been cancelled yet although they are unknown company. Such companies get involved in “Tender Bids” and get some money from other companies by taking out their tenders. Because of poor policy and corruption, there is no any incentive to revoke their licenses. However, recently, the government seems to be making some progress in penalizing such companies. ...... India’s demand for power would grow to 200,000 MW by 2018. If Nepal could fast-track projects to generate just 10,000 MW in ten years, consume 2,000 MW itself and export the rest to India, it could earn $2.7 billion a year. ...... in the fiscal year 2005/06, NRs 2.45 billions has been spent to import petroleum products. If the same amount of money were spent for developing hydropower, we could generate 29.9 MW hydropower electricity (for instance, in Chilme Hydropower Project, 1 KW production cost = $1550 = NRs.108500). ...... India and Bangladesh are two major markets for hydropower. ....... In recent years, three Nepali power projects like Chilime (20 MW) in Rasuwa, Piluwa (3 MW) in Sankhuwasabha and Jhimruk (12 MW) in Pyuthan proved that Nepal can now generate cheap electricity with locally-built and locally-financed hydropower schemes. ..... The donor-funded projects come with strings attached, they have to be designed and managed by international consultants and built by other contractors. Thus, a large amount of money goes back to the donors
Nepal clears China plan for $1.6 bln hydroelectric dam
The project, set to be completed in 2019, is expected to ease the crippling power shortage in Nepal whose economy is still emerging from a decade-long civil war - conflict that scared away investors and slowed infrastructure projects. ..... Two weeks ago, the Natural Resources and Means Committee of the parliament, asked for the project work to be halted due to allegations of irregularities in awarding the contract to the Chinese company without any international bidding...... The Chinese firm, which was to own a 75 percent stake in it while the state-owned Nepal Electricity Authority would take the rest, threatened to pull out after the parliamentary panel ordered an inquiry. ...... According to Lakshman Ghimire, a member of the committee, the Chinese firm should be given only 51 percent stakes instead of 75 percent and the remaining distributed among the public in the remote villages where the project is to be located. ..... Nepal's economy grew 3.5 percent in 2010-11, down from 4.8 percent in the previous year with the country facing 14 hours of daily power cuts during the dry season when its rivers flow slowly. ..... Aid-dependent Nepal, with 900 megawatt of electricity shortage, is one of the world's 10 poorest countries where tourism and hydropower are two key areas in which the government is trying to attract foreign investment
The neocolonial path to power
At first glance, Bhutan certainly appears to have achieved better hydropower development than its Himalayan neighbour. Three times smaller in landmass and with a population one-fiftieth of Nepal’s, the current generating capacity of Bhutan (at 1488 megawatts) is twice that of Nepal. The Punatsangchhu-I hydro plant, under construction with a 60 percent grant and 40 percent soft loan from India, will add another 1020 MW by 2016. Such cheap development capital means that Bhutanese consumers pay a mere INR 1.30 per unit of electricity, allowing them to cook food and heat homes with electricity. Currently, about 70 percent of the 123,000 households in Bhutan have access to electricity, and by 2013 the entire country is expected to be electrified. ...... Though Bhutan has twice the electricity-generation capacity of Nepal, around 80 percent of its electricity is exported to India, leaving only about 300 MW for consumption in Bhutan. Of this, only 80 MW is for domestic use, while the rest goes to southern Bhutan to be consumed by various Indian-owned industries, such as cement factories, lured here by the availability of cheap electricity. Subsidised electricity has led to booming demand, which grew by 19 percent from 2007 to 2008, increasing a further 27 percent in 2009 and 54 percent in 2010. ...... Nepal’s chronic power crisis precipitated by its unstable politics ..... India, despite its close friendship with Bhutan, cannot provide cheap power to its smaller neighbour due to its own 10,000 MW electricity shortage in the grid of North India, a fact not understood by today’s Nepali politicians. ...... the mirage of the Mahakali and political infighting ...... Exploring new power policies beyond the straitjacket imposed by hegemonic Indian plans, Bhutan’s hydrocrats have initiated medium-sized plants more suited to Bhutan’s economy. The 126 MW Dagachu and the 208 MW Nikhachu schemes are being developed using a public-private partnership model supported by the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism, which has come about in the wake of international concerns over global climate change. Recent changes in water policy require all power exporters to give 15 percent of their energy free to the Bhutanese grid as royalty. ....... The feasibility study of the 4000 MW Sunkhosh is now complete, but Bhutanese officials do not seem interested to push it. During a recent four-day stay in Thimphu, this writer heard a uniform refrain from many officials: We cannot be confrontationists like you Nepalis – but inundation projects are our last priority, to be done only if the pressure from India becomes too strong to resist. ...... Besides electricity, storage dams provide flood control, irrigation, fisheries, navigation and tourism, from which different economic actors benefit in varying degrees. As Nepal (and India) has not built any significant multipurpose project, its policymakers have no idea how these benefits can be allocated in an equitable manner, nor how the political, economic, social and environmental issues need sorting out. ...... at least 50 percent of the benefits of a storage dam are in areas outside the electricity sector, which must be accounted for. ..... the regulated water released in the dry season would lead to massive agricultural expansion in the plains, and flood-control benefits would result when the summer peak flood is lopped off to be stored in the reservoirs. As Bhutan does not have any Tarai plains, it is the downstream riparian areas that will reap the non-power benefits from reservoir projects in upstream Bhutan. New Delhi hopes to capture these valuable benefits from regulated water released from storage reservoirs in the dry season and, through its river-linking plan, to transport such waters to the dry western part of the country. ..... A rent-seeking, royalty-earning model might enrich governments, politicians and senior bureaucrats for some time, much like the Arab sheikhdoms, but it does nothing to develop national capacity – which is what development is, in the true sense. ..... Despite state indifference due to the Nepali hydrocracy’s infatuation with foreign aid, the survey, design, geo-technical engineering, contracting, construction and some equipment manufacture and maintenance are now done by Nepalis in small factories and consultancy services, for projects from a few hundred kilowatts to some 20 MW. The importance of such capacity is evident from the fact that Bhutanese power managers, during visits to the Bhutanese gomba (monastery) located in the Boudha area of Kathmandu, also take the opportunity to visit nearby factories to procure services for plant maintenance in Bhutan
Nepal India Cooperation on Hydropower (NICOH)
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